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Table 2 Body mass and HRQoL scores over the course of the study, M (SD)

From: Changes in self-reported and parent-reported health-related quality of life in overweight children and adolescents participating in an outpatient training: findings from a 12-month follow-up study

  Start of training (pre) End of training (post) Follow-up 6 months (follow-up 1) Follow-up 12 months (follow-up 2) Partial η 2 for univariate time effect
BMI 23.67 (1.48) 23.01 (1.58) 23.49 (1.84) 23.94 (2.09) 0.141
zBMI 1.64 (0.18) 1.38 (0.29)*** 1.41 (0.36)*** 1.41 (0.43)*** 0.251
Parent proxy-report
total HRQoL raw 73.18 (10.51) 75.67 (9.46) 74.14 (10.91) 76.53 (8.40)** 0.053
z-score −0.44 (1.11)c −0.10 (1.02)* −0.17 (1.12) 0.11 (0.85)*** 0.096
physical raw 74.79 (16.01) 76.78 (15.15) 75.86 (18.06) 77.32 (16.67) 0.011
z-score −0.20 (0.99) 0.01 (0.96) 0.01 (1.15) 0.15 (1.00)** 0.031
emotional raw 76.39 (13.65) 79.14 (11.50) 77.82 (14.47) 79.24 (15.10)* 0.028
z-score −0.38 (1.10)b −0.11 (0.91)* −0.18 (1.13) −0.05 (1.14)** 0.048
self-esteem raw 64.70 (12.83) 70.02 (12.84)B** 66.51 (15.36) 69.81 (12.50)** 0.062
z-score −0.37 (0.95)c 0.07 (0.99)B*** −0.15 (1.14) 0.12 (0.89)B*** 0.081
friends raw 72.54 (13.01) 73.02 (14.18) 72.90 (17.87) 76.99 (13.24)** 0.047
z-score −0.39 (0.98)c −0.34 (1.06) −0.33 (1.32) −0.03 (0.99)B** 0.052
family raw 75.27 (14.83) 77.21 (13.06) 77.32 (14.85) 77.32 (13.64) 0.011
z-score −0.22 (1.10) −0.03 (0.91) 0.01 (1.02) 0.03 (0.93)* 0.028
school raw 75.22 (15.92) 77.90 (13.10) 74.70 (16.01) 78.08 (12.77)* 0.031
z-score −0.29 (1.10)a 0.00 (0.95)* −0.11 (1.06)* 0.21 (0.86)B*** 0.098
weight-specific 71.34 (14.99) 78.74 (13.79)B*** 78.57 (14.10)B*** 79.78 (11.44)B*** 0.136
weight complaints 1.91 (0.90) 1.51 (0.63)B*** 1.58 (0.65)B*** 1.49 (0.65)B*** 0.125
Child self-report
total HRQoL raw 75.51 (11.37) 77.78 (10.25) 76.78 (11.90) 78.80 (9.95)** 0.036
z-score 0.00 (1.27) 0.30 (1.11)* 0.24 (1.28) 0.51 (0.99)*** 0.067
physical raw 73.89 (15.90) 76.50 (15.24)* 75.73 (17.01) 76.88 (16.08) 0.020
z-score 0.04 (1.09) 0.24 (0.97)* 0.21 (1.11) 0.35 (1.00)* 0.030
emotional raw 82.60 (14.60) 82.14 (12.13) 82.62 (15.14) 85.45 (11.79) 0.005
z-score −0.03 (1.34) −0.04 (1.07) −0.01 (1.41) 0.28 (0.96) 0.007
self-esteem raw 65.41 (16.97) 67.82 (15.11) 68.49 (20.17) 72.69 (15.54)** 0.043
z-score 0.20 (0.96) 0.45 (0.91) 0.58 (1.13)* 0.83 (0.89)B*** 0.093
friends raw 75.94 (15.07) 79.60 (12.79) 77.77 (16.68) 80.17 (14.05) 0.016
z-score −0.24 (1.12)a 0.06 (0.93) −0.10 (1.24) 0.11 (1.02) 0.021
family raw 81.85 (16.30) 85.26 (14.29) 82.53 (16.03) 82.98 (15.56) 0.014
z-score −0.16 (1.23) 0.10 (1.05) −0.08 (1.15) 0.01 (0.98) 0.014
school raw 74.29 (19.11) 76.13 (17.64) 72.43 (18.84) 74.20 (15.93)§ 0.020
z-score 0.18 (1.39) 0.36 (1.17) 0.12 (1.20) 0.30 (0.92)§ 0.027
weight-specific (n = 25) 75.36 (13.77) 83.59 (13.61)B** 82.69 (14.51)B** 82.30 (14.17)** 0.187
weight complaints (n = 25) 2.11 (0.91) 1.66 (0.83)B** 1.69 (0.85)B** 1.61 (0.78)** 0.194
  1. a: p ≤ .05, b: p ≤ .01, c: p ≤ .001 compared to norm population.
  2. * p ≤ .05, ** p ≤ .01, *** p ≤ .001 for simple contrast against pre score (unadjusted);
  3. B: p ≤ .05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple tests; B ≤ .0021 for proxy-reported original scores, B ≤ .0028 for proxy-reported z-scores and self-reported original scores, B ≤ .0083 for self-reported weight-specific scores.
  4. § significant time-gender interaction.
  5. BMI z-scores (zBMI) are based on Cole’s LMS method.
  6. All HRQoL original scores range from 0 to 100, except for weight complaints that vary from 1 (never/not at all) to 5 (always/strong); z-scores are the deviance from the age- and gender-specific population mean in terms of SD units.
  7. Effect size η2 is classified as 0.01 = small, 0.06 = medium, 0.14 = large effect.