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Table 4 Hierarchic regression analyses for predicting quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref)

From: Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

  WHOQOL-Bref physical
Step 1     Step 2    Step 3    Step 4  
B 95%CI BETA B 95%CI BETA B 95%CI BETA B 95%CI BETA
HSCL-25-D −2.205³ −3.07, -1.35 −0.593 −1.773² −2.96, -0.58 −0.477 −1.18¹ −2.33, -0.03 −0.317 −0.935 −2.06, 0.19 −0.251
IES-R     −0.024 −0.07, 0.22 −0.168 −0.018 −0.06, 0.03 −0.123 −0.022 −0.06, 0.02 −0.153
PTGI-SF        0.093² 0.04, 0.15 0.395 0.085² 0.03, 0.14 0.361
Unemployment           0.651¹ 0.05, 1.25 0.232
R square 0.352    0.366    0.484    0.533   
R square change 0.352    0.014³    0.118³    0.049³   
WHOQOL-Bref psychological
HSCL-25-D −2.547³ −3.41, -1.68 −0.645 −1.975² −3.16, -0.78 −0.500 −1.321¹ −2.44, -0.20 −0.334 −1.115¹ −2.23, -0.01 −0.282
IES-R     −0.032 −0.08, 0.01 −0.209 −0.025 −0.07, 0.02 −0.162 −0.029 −0.07, 0.01 −0.186
PTGI-SF        0.102³ 0.05, 0.16 0.409 0.096³ 0.04, 0.15 0.383
Unemployment           0.549 −0.04, 1.14 0.184
R square 0.415    0.438    0.565    0.596   
R square change 0.415    0.023³    0.127³    0.031³   
WHOQOL-Bref social
HSCL-25-D −2.623³ −3.71, -1.53 −0.568 −2.495² −4.02, -0.97 −0.541 −2.146² −3.74, -0.55 −0.465 −1.856¹ −3.45, -0.27 −0.402
IES-R     −0.007 −0.07, 0.05 −0.243 −0.003 −0.06, 0.06 −0.019 −0.008 −0.07, 0.05 −0.047
PTGI-SF        0.055 −0.03, 0.13 0.187 0.045 −0.03, 0.12 0.155
Unemployment           0.771 −0.07, 1.62 0.222
R square 0.323    0.324    0.350    0.395   
R square change 0.323    0.001³    0.026³    0.045³   
WHOQOL-Bref environmental
HSCL-25-D −1.983³ −2.90, -1.07 −0.527 −2.013² −3.30, -0.73 −0.535 −1.492¹ −2.77, -0.21 −0.397 −1.204 −2.46, 0.05 −0.320
IES-R     0.002 −0.04, 0.05 0.011 0.007 −0.04, 0.06 0.050 0.002 −0.04, 0.05 0.016
PTGI-SF        0.082¹ 0.02, 0.15 0.342 0.072¹ 0.01, 0.13 0.303
Unemployment           0.768¹ 1,43 0.271
R square 0.278    0.278    0.367    0.433   
R square change 0.278    0.000³    0.089³    0.066³   
  1. Note: WHOQOL-Bref physical (F(4,46) = 13.145, p<0.001; adjusted R² = 0.493); WHOQOL-Bref psychological (F(4,46) = 17.974, p<0.001; adjusted R² = 0.561); WHOQOL-Bref social (F(4,46) = 7.507, p<0.001; adjusted R² = 0.342); WHOQOL-Bref environmental (F(4,46) = 8.790, p<0.001; adjusted R² = 0.384); HSCL-25-D = Hopkins Symptom Checklist Scale-Depression subscale; IES-R= Impact of Event Scale-Revised; PTGI-SF= Posttraumatic Growth Inventory - Short Form.
  2. ¹p <.05; ²p<.01; ³p<.001.