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Table 5 Multivariate mixed effects analyses predicting quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami (N = 574)

From: World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

  Model A   Model B  
  Quality of life Posttraumatic stress Quality of life Posttraumatic stress
Fixed effects     
 Intercept −0.29 (−0.61, 0.22) 0.15 (−0.16, 0.46) −0.24 (−0.54, 0.06) 0.01 (−0.28, 0.31)
 Gender     
  Male −0.25 (−0.40, -0.11)*** −0.20 (−0.35, -0.06)** −0.36 (−0.50, -0.22)*** −0.22 (−0.35, -0.08)**
  Femalea 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Age 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)* 0.00 (−0.00, 0.01) 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)** 0.01 (−0.00, 0.01)
  Exposure     
  Not exposed 0.27 (0.05, 0.50)* −0.94 (−1.16, -0.72)*** −0.06 (−0.29, 0.17) −0.80 (−1.01, -0.59)***
  Exposed, but no danger 0.16 (−0.02, 0.33) −0.41 (−0.58, -0.24)*** 0.02 (−0.15, 0.19) −0.32 (−0.48, -0.16)***
  In dangera 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  Invulnerability 0.03 (−0.05, 0.12) −0.08 (−0.17, 0.00) −0.02 (−0.10, 0.06) −0.04 (−0.12, 0.03)
  Just world 0.18 (0.08, 0.29)*** −0.17 (−0.27, -0.06)** 0.11 (0.01, 0.22)* −0.13 (−0.23, -0.03)*
  Predictable world −0.03 (−0.13, 0.06) 0.11 (0.01, 0.20)* −0.03 (−0.12, 0.07) 0.09 (−0.00, 0.18)
  Controllable world −0.03 (−0.15, 0.09) −0.09 (−0.21, 0.02) −0.04 (−0.15, 0.07) −0.08 (−0.19, 0.03)
  Good and benevolent world 0.11 (0.00, 0.22)* −0.11 (−0.22, -0.01)* 0.07 (−0.03, 0.18) −0.10 (−0.20, 0.01)
  Meaningful life 0.15 (0.05, 0.25)** −0.08 (−0.18, 0.02) 0.14 (0.05, 0.24)** −0.01 (−0.11, 0.09)
  Valuable person 0.23 (0.11, 0.36)*** −0.01 (−0.13, 0.11) 0.20 (0.09, 0.32)*** 0.08 (−0.04, 0.19)
  Quality of life at T1     −0.35 (−0.42, -0.27)***
  Posttraumatic stress at T1    −0.34 (−0.42, -0.25)***  
Explained variance     
 Between households 32.5% 52.7% 44.8% 53.4%
 Within households 7.0% −5.0% 12.3% 11.4%
 Total explained variance 17.2% 21.7% 25.3% 30.8%
Model fit     
 AIC 1,549.66 1,529.64 1,497.33 1,461.54
  1. Note: The multilevel regression analysis was controlled for the effect of mutual address. Figures are regression coefficients (confidence intervals in parenthesis). Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were standardized (Z-values). All predictors were measured six months post-tsunami. Model A includes all control variables (age, gender, exposure) and world assumptions. Model B also includes quality of life or posttraumatic stress symptoms at six months. The explained variance is the percentage reduction in unexplained variance as compared to a model without any independent variables. The AIC for such an empty model was 1,614.32 and 1,616.05 for quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms, respectively.
  2. AIC = Akaike’s information criterion.
  3. a Females and those respondents exposed to danger were set to have a mean of 0 in the mixed effect models.
  4. * p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001.