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Table 4 Psychometric characteristics of the QLiS subscale (results from study in step one; n = 203), validation study in step 6 (n = 135) and retest-study in step 6 (n = 49)

From: QLiS – development of a schizophrenia-specific quality-of-life scale

QLiS-subscalesexample of item # items mean (std.-dev.) scale-fit (%) floor/ceiling effects (%) internal consis-tency (α) test-retest-reliability
social contacts There are too few people visiting me. 5 4.42 (±2.22) 4.47 (±2.24) 98.2 96.4 3.4/1.5 4.4/1.5 .71.63 n.a..73
appreciation by others I feel respected by other people. 4 6.47 (±2.36) 6.37 (±2.13) 100 97.7 2.5/9.9 1.5/5.9 .78 .70 n.a. .72
relationship to family My family provides me with backing and strength. 3 6.15 (±2.96) 5.90 (±2.55) 100 100 6.9/17.2 3.0/8.1 .82 .71 n.a. .82
appraisal of pharmacotherapy I feel no interests due to my medication. 6 5.60 (±2.25) 5.97 (±2.11) 100 100 2.0/3.9 0.7/2.2 .77 .71 n.a. .79
appraisal of psychopathological symptoms I suffer from inner unrest. 6 5.16 (±2.53) 5.58 (±2.40) 100 96.7 2.5/3.4 0.7/2.2 .84 .82 n.a. .76
cognitive functioning I feel alert and can think straight. 5 5.28 (±2.37) 5.49 (±2.31) 100 98.5 2.0/3.9 0.7/1.5 .81 .79 n.a. .83
abilities to manage daily living I feel dependent on others. 4 6.23 (±2.38) 6.42 (±2.43) 100 100 1.0/10.3 0.7/14.1 .75 .74 n.a. .82
appraisal of accommodation/housing I have sufficient opportunities to retreat to. 5 6.04 (±2.23) 6.14 (±2.17) 100 100 1.5/5.9 0.7/3.7 .73 .73 n.a. .77
financial situation I do not have enough money for ordinary things, such as decent clothes, cigarettes. 4 5.17 (±2.59) 4.72 (±2.65) 100 100 3.4/4.4 5.2/3.7 .75 .77 n.a. .87
leading a “normal“ life I am leading a “normal” life like everyone else is. 3 4.52 (±2.58) 4.56 (±2.60) 97.7 96.7 6.9/5.4 3.7/3.7 .70 .70 n.a. .81
confidence I have a great deal of self-confidence. 4 5.73 (±2.42) 5.74 (±2.28) 100 100 2.0/6.9 1.5/3.7 .75 .74 n.a. .76
global life-satisfaction I lead a happy life. 3 4.26 (±2.56) 4.64 (±2.75) 100 100 10.0/3.4 8.9/4.4 .80 .88 n.a. .82
  1. subscale means from 0 (worst possible QoL) - to 10 (best possible QoL), theoretical mean = 5 scale-fit: based on the analysis of every item-times-subscale correlation; it is defined as the number of corrected item-subscale correlations that are higher in absolute value compared to the correlations of the subscale items with other subscales in relation to all possible item-subscale-correlations floor/ceiling effects: number of subjects with the lowest/highest possible subscale value internal consistency: Cronbach’s alpha test-retest-reliability: Pearson correlation coefficient between two assessments in stable non-hospitalised patients 7–10 days apart.