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Table 5 Comparison of EQ-5D-3L Index Scores between Subgroups with Different Health Status: by Survey Language

From: The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

  Patients completing the Chinese
EQ-5D-3L
Patients completing the English
EQ-5D-3L
  N Mean (SD) Adjusted difference*
(p-value)
N Mean (SD) Adjusted difference*
(p-value)
BMI (kg/m2)       
< 30 280 0.867 (0.174) 0.020 231 0.892 (0.161) 0.080
≥ 30 41 0.849 (0.207) (0.501) 54 0.799 (0.234) (0.003)
Duration of DM       
< 10 years 179 0.882 (0.139) 0.034 168 0.897 (0.161) 0.043
≥ 10 years 153 0.836 0.209) (0.090) 125 0.843 (0.199) (0.039)
Presence of complications     
No 187 0.897 (0.138) 0.073 183 0.917 (0.113) 0.102
Yes 144 0.814 (0.208) (< 0.001) 111 0.803 (0.239) (< 0.001)
Presence of comorbidities     
No 60 0.889 (0.130) 0.011 85 0.926 (0.148) 0.056
Yes 271 0.855 (0.185) (0.685) 209 0.852 (0.187) (0.015)
  1. Notes: complications were conditions or diseases related to diabetes including stroke, ischemic heart disease, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and eye disease; comorbidities included cancer, arthritis, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, asthma, lung conditions, liver conditions, mental disorders, urological disease, and ear, nose or throat diseases. * values are regression coefficients in multiple linear regression models in which the effects of administration mode, age, gender, employment status, and education using linear regression models are adjusted for.