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Table 2 Comparison of EQ-VAS Scores between Subgroups with Different Health Status: by Survey Language

From: The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

  Patients completing the Chinese
EQ-5D-3L
Patients completing the English
EQ-5D-3L
  N Mean (SD) Adjusted difference*
(p-value)
N Mean (SD) Adjusted difference*
(p-value)
BMI (kg/m2)       
< 30 280 69.0 (16.5) -1.4 233 70.7 (16.4) 3.0
≥ 30 42 70.7 (17.6) (0.612) 54 67.6 (16.4) (0.241)
Duration of DM       
< 10 years 180 69.7 (17.7) 1.1 168 72.8 (15.1) 5.8
≥ 10 years 153 68.1 (15.1) (0.564) 127 66.8 (17.5) (0.003)
Presence of complications
No 188 70.7 (17.5) 3.6 184 73.4 (14.2) 7.8
Yes 144 67.0 (15.4) (0.057) 112 65.0 (18.3) (< 0.001)
Presence of comorbidities
No 61 68.4 (17.8) -1.7 85 75.6 (15.4) 6.8
Yes 271 69.2 (16.4) (0.493) 211 68.0 (16.3) (0.002)
  1. Notes: complications were conditions or diseases related to diabetes including stroke, ischemic heart disease, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and eye disease; comorbidities included cancer, arthritis, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, asthma, lung conditions, liver conditions, mental disorders, urological disease, and ear, nose or throat diseases. * values are regression coefficients in multiple linear regression models in which the effects of administration mode, age, gender, employment status, and education using linear regression models are adjusted for.