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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted associations between expectations and 5 treatment outcomes

From: Systematic review: Do patient expectations influence treatment outcomes in total knee and total hip arthroplasty?

  Overall improvement Pain Function Stiffness Satisfaction
  E1/E2 Association individual studies Quality score N Overall association E1/E2 Association individual studies Quality score N Overall association E1/E2 Association individual studies Quality score N Overall association E1/E2 Association individual studies Quality score N Overall association E1/E2 Association individual studies Quality score N Overall association
Unadjusted associations                          
≤ 6 weeks       E2 r=−0.08 [36] 53% 100 O E2 r=−0.05 [36] 53% 100 O E1 r=0.165 ‡ [16]hips 39% 106 0 E1 OR=1.176 (ns)∫ [31] 61% 45 O
>6 weeks – ≤6 months E2 r=0.13 [30] 79% 123 O E1 r=0.118* [16]hips 39% 106 +− E1 r=0.170[16]hips 39% 106 +−   r=−0.024 ‡ [16]knees 39% 106    OR=0.593 (ns)# [31]    
    r=0.24 [32] 74% 272    r=0.188* [16]knees 39% 106    r=−0.208[16]knees 39% 106    ns [15] 58% 222   OR=1.000 (ns)∞ [31]    
        p=0.001 [14] 58% 2350    p<0.001 [14] 58% 2350    p=0.46 [17] 74% 788       
        p<0.05 [15] 58% 222    ns [15] 58% 222            
        p=0.62 [17] 74% 788    p=0.90 [17] 74% 788            
       E2 r=−0.12 [32] 74% 272   E2 r=0.19 [30] 79% 123 O           
             r=−0.19 [32] 74% 272            
> 6 months E1 r=0.24 [27] 58% 146 +− E1 p=0.012 [14] 58% 2350 + E1 r=−0.547 [37] 6% 1302 +− E1 OR= 1.23 (p<0.001) [34] 63% 1327 + E1 r=−0.03 [24] 50% 44 +−
   p=0.70 ∏ [35] 50% 799    OR=1.17 (p<0.001) [34] 63% 1327    p<0.001 [14] 58% 350         r=0.274 ∫[27] 58% 146  
   p=0.013 Ω [35] 50% 799         p<0.001 [28] 44% 102         r=0.262#[27] 58% 146  
   OR=1.36 (=0.013) [34] 63% 1327         OR=1.25 (p<0.001) [34] 63% 1327         r=0.102§ [27] 58% 146  
Adjusted associations                       p=0.171 ∫ [35] 50% 799  
≤ 6 weeks E1 β0.23 (p0.10) [33] 68% 51 O       E1 β 0.23 (p=0.11) [33] 68% 51 O        p=0.013 # [35] 50% 799  
            E2 β 0.151 (ns) [36] 53% 100 O           
>6 weeks – ≤6 months E1 β-0.107(ns) [25] 58% 78 O E1 β0.364 (p<.01)* [25] 58% 78 +− E1 β 0.081 (ns) [25] 58% 78 +− E1 ns [15] 58% 222 O      
        β7.8 (p<.01) [15] 58% 222    ns [15] 58% 222    ns [17] 74% 788       
        ns [17] 74% 788    β 8.10 (p<0.01)∞ [15] 58% 222            
  E2 β0.09 (ns) [30] 79% 123 0        ns § [17] 74% 788            
   β-0.193 (ns) [25]   78   E2 β-0.388 (p<.01)[25] 58% 78 +− E2 β0.18 [30] 78% 123 +−           
   ns [32] 58% 272    OR=0.80§ [29] 68% 157    β-0.337 (p<0.05) [25] 58% 78            
    74%     ns [32] 74% 272    ns § [29] 68% 157            
             ns [32] 74% 272            
> 6 months E1 ns [27] 58% 146 +− E1 p<0.001‡ [14] 58% 2350 +− E1 p>0.05‡ [14] 58% 2350 +− E1 OR= 1.21 (p=0.003) [34] 63% 1327 + E1 ns [26] 53% 598 O
   OR=1.34 (p = 0.04) [34] 63% 1327    p<0.05 [26] 52% 598    ns [26] 52% 598         ns ∫ [27] 58% 146  
        ns [17] 74% 788    ns [17] 74% 788         ns #[27] 58% 146  
        OR=1.14 (p=0.049) [34] 63% 1327    OR=1.20 (p<0.001) [34] 63% 1327         ns § [27] 58% 146  
  1. E1 outcome expectations, E2 efficacy expectations, ns= non significant, + positive association between expectations and outcome (the higher the expectations the better the outcome), - negative association between expectations and outcome (the higher the expectations the worse the outcome), O no association between expectations and outcome, +− unclear association between expectations and outcomes, ∏ association between expectations about pain and overall improvement, Ω association between expectations about function and overall improvement *correlation between importance of expectations and WOMAC pain change score between baseline and 6 months after surgery, †correlation between importance of expectations and WOMAC function change score between baseline and 6 months after surgery, correlation between importance of expectations and WOMAC stiffness change score between baseline and 6 months after surgery, ∫ association between expectations about pain and satisfaction, # association between expectations about functional limitations and satisfaction, § association between expectations about recovery time and satisfaction, ∞ association between expectations about overall success and satisfaction.