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Table 1 Properties of the most frequently used outcome measures

From: Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures

Category Outcome measure Number of studies Publication year Region of development Number of items Number of levels per item Dementia specific?
Burden Zarit Burden Interview 76 (21.1%) 1983 USA 22 5 Yes
Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC) 44 (12.2%) 1992 USA 24 6 Yes
Relatives Stress Scale 13 (3.6%) 1982 UK 15 5 Yes
Novak Caregiver Burden Inventory 11 (3.0%) 1989 Canada 24 4 Yes
Screen for Caregiver burden 11 (3.0%) 1991 USA 25 5 Yes
Perceived Stress Scale 11 (3.0%) 1983 USA 14 5 No
(Revised) Caregiving Burden Scale 6 (1.7%) 1994 Netherlands 13 5 Yes
Caregiver Stress Scale 4 (1.1%) 1990 USA 15 3-5 Yes
Mastery Sense of Competence Questionnaire 12 (3.3%) 1996 Netherlands 27 2-5 Yes
Brief Coping Orientation for Problems Experienced (COPE) 6 (1.7%) 1997 USA 28 4 No
Ways of coping scale 6 (1.7%) 1985 USA 64 2 No
Revised Scale for Caregiving Self Efficacy 6 (1.7%) 1999 USA 19 Rated 0-100 No
Mood Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 57 (15.8%) 1977 USA 20 4 No
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)1 31 (8.6%) 1978 UK 28 4 No
Neuropsychiatric Inventory- Carer Distress (NPI-D) 30 (8.3%) 1998 USA 12 6 Yes
Geriatric Depression Scale 19 (5.3%) 1982 USA 30 2 No
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 17 (4.7%) 1961 USA 21 4 No
Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) 12 (3.3%) 2000 USA 12 6 Yes
Brief Symptom Inventory 8 (2.2%) 1983 USA 53 5 No
Hamilton Depression Scale 8 (2.2%) 1960 UK 17 3-5 No
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 8 (2.2%) 1989 USA 24 1-4 No
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 7 (1.9%) 1983 UK 14 4 No
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 7 (1.9%) 1970 USA 20 4 No
Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) 5 (1.4%) 1988 USA 20 5 No
Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 4 (1.1%) 1974 USA 58 4 No
Positive Aspects of Caregiving 4 (1.1%) 2004 USA 9 5 Yes
Quality of life Short Form-36 (SF-36) 32 (8.8%) 1988 USA 36 2-6 No
EuroQoL (EQ-5D) 18 (5.0%) 1990 Europe 5 3 No
World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) 8 (2.2%) 1996 Global 26 5 No
Health Utilities Index Mark2 4 (1.1%) 1990 Canada 8 5-6 No
Social support and relationships Social Support Questionnaire 7 (1.8%) 1983 USA 27 6 No
Stokes Social Support network List 4 (1.1%) 1983 USA N/A Matrix N/A No
Staff competency and morale Maslach Burnout Inventory 10 (2.6%) 1981 USA 22 3-7 No
Approaches to Dementia questionnaire 4 (1.1%) 2000 UK 19 5 Yes
  1. 1 Information given for the 28 item version (GHQ-28).
  2. 2 Information given for the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3).