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Table 3 Health-related quality of life, work productivity, and resource use by the presence of tophi (unadjusted)

From: Tophi and frequent gout flares are associated with impairments to quality of life, productivity, and increased healthcare resource use: Results from a cross-sectional survey

  Number of self-reported tophi
No tophi (n = 349) Not sure (n = 195) Any tophi (n = 76)  
M SD M SD M SD p
HRQOL
  SF-12 MCS 50.07 9.42 46.06 12.12 44.44 12.88 <0.001
  SF-12 PCS 42.62 12.30 38.26 11.33 36.90 11.71 <0.001
  SF-6D Utility 0.73 0.14 0.66 0.14 0.64 0.16 <0.001
Work Productivity
  % Work missed 4.76 17.68 5.28 18.09 8.80 13.65 0.513
  % Impairment at work 16.62 23.42 21.36 24.92 37.67 32.13 <0.001
  % Overall work impairment 19.43 27.59 24.62 28.36 40.17 34.51 0.002
  % Activity impairment 33.35 32.30 44.05 32.08 48.68 34.77 <0.001
Resource Use
  Number of traditional healthcare provider visits 5.71 6.91 7.02 7.52 7.34 9.26 0.065
  1. Note: MCS: Mental Component Summary; PCS: Physical Component Summary; ER: Emergency Room.