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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects completing the English or Chinese EQ-5D

From: Do English and Chinese EQ-5D versions demonstrate measurement equivalence? an exploratory study

  n (%) unless stated  
  English (n = 66) Chinese (n = 48) p-value*
Mean ± SD (median) age 44.3 ± 17.2 (43.0) 56.7 ± 12.4 (57.0) <0.001
Female gender 48 (72.7) 45 (93.8) 0.006
Chinese ethnicity 45 (68.2) 48 (100) -
Employed/full time student 38 (57.5) 13 (27.1) 0.010
Six or less years of education 8 (12.1) 31 (64.6) <0.001
Married 40 (60.6) 38 (79.2) 0.597
Acute medical condition present†‡ 50 (75.8) 36 (75.0) 0.926
Chronic medical condition present§ 27 (40.9) 28 (58.3) 0.066
Mean ± SD (median) 10 cm pain VAS score 3.3 ± 2.7 (2.6) 4.7 ± 2.2 (4.6) 0.003
Tender points present 42 (63.6) 31 (64.6) 0.883
Rheumatic disease    
   Osteoarthritis 9 (13.6) 15 (31.3) 0.006
   Rheumatoid Arthritis 26 (39.4) 23 (47.9)  
   Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 23 (34.8) 8 (16.7)  
   Spondyloarthropathy 8 (12.2) 2 (4.1)  
Response to EQ-5D items    
Mobility    
   No problems 50 (75.8) 40 (83.3) 0.327
   Some problems 16 (24.2) 8 (16.7)  
   Extreme problems 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Self-care    
   No problems 66 (100) 46 (95.8) 0.094
   Some problems 0 (0) 2 (4.2)  
   Extreme problems 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Usual activities    
   No problems 50 (75.8) 43 (89.6) 0.125
   Some problems 15 (22.7) 4 (8.3)  
   Extreme problems 1 (1.5) 1 (2.1)  
Pain/discomfort    
   No pain/discomfort 14 (21.2) 11 (22.9) 0.889
   Moderate pain/discomfort 49 (74.2) 34 (70.8)  
   Extreme pain/discomfort 3 (4.5) 3 (6.3)  
Anxiety/depression    
   No anxiety/depression 40 (60.6) 30 (62.5) 0.098
   Moderate anxiety/depression 26 (39.4) 15 (31.2)  
   Extreme anxiety/depression 0 (0) 3 (6.3)  
  1. *Chi-square or t-test † Acute medical conditions included upper respiratory tract infections, vomiting or diarrhoea, headache lasting more than 1 day, insomnia and injuries. ‡ The recall period for the pain VAS and acute medical conditions was the preceding 4 weeks. §Chronic medical conditions included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, cancer, joint replacement and limb fractures.