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Table 1 Review of AMS scales available in different languages Characteristic of linguistic & cultural translation

From: The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale: Update and compilation of international versions

   Internationally recommended translations Incomplete translations
  German English Swedish Dutch Spanish Portuguese Italian Japanese Korean* Finnish Russian Flemish
Source language Original German English English English English English English English English English English
Forward translations: number n.a. 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
Forward translation: consensus meeting n.a. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Bilingual (medical) expert n.a. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Backward translation n.a. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Not yet No No No
Backward translation: consensus meeting n.a. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Not yet n.a. n.a. n.a.
Pretest with patients (cognitive debriefing) n.a. Yes (20) Yes (20) Yes (5) Yes (5) Yes (20) Yes (20) Yes (5) Yes(25) Yes No Yes
Developer of the scale involved in the translation process n.a. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Test-retest (number) Yes (102) Yes (92) Yes (48) No Yes (30) Yes (40) Yes (40) No Yes (25) Yes (89/208) No No
Clinical study with AMS Yes No? Planned Yes Yes Planned Planned Planned Yes? Yes No (Yes)
  1. n.a. = not applicable * = to be completed in due course